An electronic mark, or e-signature, alludes to information in electronic frame, or, in other words with other information in electronic shape and which is utilized by the signatory to sign.[1][2][3] This kind of mark gives indistinguishable legitimate remaining from a manually written signature as long as it sticks to the necessities of the particular control it was made under (e.g., eIDAS in the European Union, NIST-DSS in the USA or ZertES in Switzerland).[4][5]

Electronic marks are a legitimate idea particular from advanced marks, a cryptographic system regularly used to actualize electronic marks. While an electronic mark can be as basic as a name entered in an electronic record, advanced marks are progressively utilized in online business and in administrative filings to execute electronic marks in a cryptographically secured way. Institutionalization organizations like NIST or ETSI give benchmarks to their execution (e.g., NIST-DSS, XAdES or PAdES).[4][6] The idea itself isn’t new, with custom-based law locales having perceived transmit marks as far back as the mid-nineteenth century and faxed marks since the 1980s

An electronic mark is expected to give a protected and exact distinguishing proof technique for the signatory to give a consistent exchange. Meanings of electronic marks fluctuate contingent upon the appropriate purview. A shared factor in many nations is the level of a progressed electronic mark requiring that:

The signatory can be remarkably recognized and connected to the mark

The signatory must have sole control of the private key that was utilized to make the electronic mark

The mark must be equipped for recognizing whether its going with information has been altered after the message was agreed upon

If the going with information has been changed, the mark must be invalidated[7]

Electronic marks might be made with expanding levels of security, with each having its very own arrangement of prerequisites and methods for creation on different levels that demonstrate the legitimacy of the mark. To give a considerably more grounded probative incentive than the above portrayed progressed electronic signature, a few nations like the European Union or Switzerland presented the qualified electronic mark. It is hard to challenge the origin of an announcement marked with a qualified electronic mark - the announcement is non-reputable.[8] Technically, a qualified electronic mark is actualized through a progressed electronic mark that uses a computerized testament, which has been scrambled through a security signature-making gadget [9] and which has been confirmed by a qualified trust specialist organization.

Since a long time before the American Civil War started in 1861, morse code was utilized to send messages electrically by telecommunication. A portion of these messages were assentions to terms that were planned as enforceable contracts. An early acknowledgment of the enforceability of telegrams as electronic marks originated from the New Hampshire Supreme Court in 1869.[11]

In the 1980s, numerous organizations and even a few people started utilizing fax machines for high-need or time-touchy conveyance of records. Despite the fact that the first signature on the first record was on paper, the picture of the mark and its transmission was electronic.[12]

Courts in different wards have chosen that enforceable electronic marks can incorporate understandings made by email, entering an individual recognizable proof number (PIN) into a bank ATM, marking an acknowledge or charge slip for a computerized pen cushion gadget (a use of designs tablet innovation) at a point of offer, introducing programming with a clickwrap programming permit concession to the bundle, and marking electronic archives on the web.

The main assention marked electronically by two sovereign countries was a Joint Communiqué perceiving the developing significance of the advancement of electronic business, marked by the United States and Ireland in 1998

Grids & Structure

We deploy grid-based layouts ‘behind the scenes’ in all our basic skins. The idea behind these layouts is to provide your website with a solid visual and structural balance from the word go.

These layout structures offer ample flexibility and enhance the visual experience for your visitors, and introduces an easy-to-follow consistency across your site, while allowing you to create and update both design and content in a well thought-out, standardised framework within the constraints of the browser.

Grid-based layouts on the web

There are many resources available if this topic sparks your interest:


Although it’s not always possible we do aim for a certain consistency when it comes to structuring a Tank site. We follow established naming conventions to enable logical hooks into the underlying structure of all our basic skins:

  • header
  • navigation
  • canvas
  • content
  • sidebar
  • footer

If you are familiar with CSS you can edit the properties of the underlying structure of your site easily.

Navigation & Architecture

The idea behind most navigation in a Tank site is that of context-sensitivity - which boils down to the fact that navigation will appear when and where is required. If you add a portfolio images will be thumb-nailed for you and be immediately navigable to larger views of the uploaded media. If you add a blog date archives, categories and RSS feeds will be present automagically. All you need to do is consider your content, and what you want to do with it.

Information architecture

Besides this approach the following options are available to further architect your information according to your requirements.

Global navigation

Content grouped into the global navigation is usually accessible via the menu structure in the header of a site and demarcates the most important information on your site. The good stuff goes here.

Utility navigation

Content grouped into the utility navigation is usually accessible via the menu structure in the footer of a site and demarcates the necessary or additional information on your site. Everything else goes here.

Hidden navigation

You can also set content to ‘hidden’ which means it’s only accessible if you either link to it or tell someone where to find it.

A blend between these three options enables you to build almost any site any way you want.

Text & Typography

We use a text-to-HTML conversion tool - a filter - that allows you to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text format, which is converted it to structurally valid HTML for rendering on the web.

In a nutshell it means you use certain characters as formatting commands and you place these characters amongst your text to create certain effects (bolding text) and functionality (linking text).

E.g. headings

You can easily apply the full range of headers (h2 to h6) as follows:

# big heading
## smaller heading
##### smallest heading

E.g. formatting text

Formatting text - bolding text, italicizing text, or even striking text is quite simple. Simply use the basic formatting rules you’ve just seen and surround your text with the appropriate characters.


We utilise and deploy percentage-based text-sizing, popular font-stacks & web-safe fonts across all our sites. This means that your site is legible and readable from the get-go, but still customisable according to your specifications and personal taste.

There are many resources available if this topic sparks your interest. Please visit the links below for additional information:

Images & Galleries

There are two ways of displaying images in your site: ‘inline’ with the rest of your content, or in sortable collections in a dedicated ‘photo section’ of their own.

Inline images

Images attached to content appear ‘inline’; in other words in the content you place them. The image below has been placed just below this paragraph and is sized automatically according to the width of the container it’s placed in.

That means images look great no matter where you put them. No need to ‘size down’ anything - in fact we recommend uploading your images large enough to cater for higher resolutions.

Inline galleries & slide-shows

If multiple images are attached to content it is possible to ‘string’ these images together into an inline gallery or slideshow. It couldn’t be simpler or easier.

Collections of images

Images can also be placed in order-able collections inside a photo section - a slightly easier way to manage large sets of images as all images are thumb-nailed and placed automatically according to the dimensions of the current skin.